Mambetakunov Dinil

Mambetakunov Dinil, 79 years old, a teacher. For many years he worked in Ak- Shyirak, Jeti- Oguz region.

23.02.2010 Time: 12: 45- 13-39

About the sanjira: why are we called Bugu[1]? It has a meaning. The reason for my happiness is that I am from Issyk-Kol. Why so? Here is the reason: A man named Aldash had six sons. He invited a famous Kazakh-synchy[2] to come evaluate them all. Together they crossed Taldy- Suu, which is located in Tup.  When they were on the range the Kazakh looked on a splashing lake and, pressing his hands to his chest said, “Oh, boi, ai! What a beauty!” and he stood like that for some time.

“My Aldash, is it your lake?” he asked.

“Yes, it is,” he replied.

“Do other rivers run into the lake?”

“Yes, they do.”

“Do they run out?”

“No, they don’t.”

“Oh, bai, ai, if the waters run in but they don’t come out, it means this land is such that it does not let its happiness leave. It must be that the people who live at the shore of this lake will never go poor.”

While on the road talking they soon came to the house and the Kazakh said, “My Aldash, it seems you invited me here with some purpose. Maybe it is so that I can look at your boys.” Aldash has six sons. All of them were called to the Kazakh except Birnazar, who came early in the morning after grazing the horses and falling asleep in the guest yurt. Aldash’s wife reproached her husband that he had forgotten about his son. The father of this village is that Birnazar.  They invited all the sons over and then the Kazakh asked Aldash, “I think the father himself is a synchy. Tell us, what son of yours will be a bei[3]? Then the father pointed to his older son Shapak. “Your Shapak is also good but the one whom Birnazar’s baibeeche will birth, he will feed many.” The months and years went by and Birnazar’s baibeeche turned 70 and she still had not given birth. She told her husband, “Take tokol[4], are you going to leave this world without descendents?” Birnazar did not say anything. He was quiet and calm. His wife got ready to visit her relatives. She was a daughter of Obogon from Solto. While at her relatives she saw a Kalmyk boy named Burbujal whom she liked and asked for him from her father to adopt the boy or to raise him as her younger brother. Her father did not agree. Her mother took pity on her, and when the father left to the mountains she sent her daughter with Burbujal. They were chased after but not found. With Burbujal’s arrival came a long waited happiness: Birnazar’s wife got pregnant and gave birth to six children, and raised six adopted children. Altogether she raised twelve children without being partial to any of them. The youngest named Baiyali grew up like a firebrand: bright and smart.

Once he asked the father of a man named Tilikmat, Jilkaidar, to kill a big mare and tell Birnazar’s baibiche that she should divide the meat between her own six children. The furious old lady almost kicked and overturned the kazan where the meat was cooking and she said, “You would never say such a thing Jilki, who told you to say that?”  At that moment Baiyali and Tilekmat rushed out like a bullet. Baibeeche understood that it was Baiyali and she gave him teskery bata[5]: “I raised you all equally without favoring anyone, but it was you, Baiyali, that has brought this rift. May you die unnaturally!” Not even a week passed before Baiyali died, falling sick with a lung infection. In such a manner she cursed her hawk, killing him because he wanted to divide. That is the power of the words spoken by the people in the past. There were descendents from her eleven children, only after Baiyaly there was nothing left.

Bugu and Sarybagysh were blood brothers. The eldest was Bugu. Here is the story why he was called that name.  Tagai beey had two sons, Akuul and Kubuul. Akuul sat at the right side of his father, Kabuul- on the left side. That is the reason why there is a division into right and left wings. From Kubuul came Kutuu, Munduz, Sary, Balyk, Chonbangel. From Akuul came Adigine and Tagai.  The Adigine clan is here in Osh. From Tagai beey came Bogoruston, Kyljyr and Koilon. From Bogoruston came Solto, Koilundu, Kooz and Jediger. And from Kyljyr came that very Bugu and Sarybagysh. Bugu had another name given him at the birth – Orozbakty. It happened during the migration: grandmother always carried small Orozbakty on her back. One day the people ate meat, drank kumys and moved on their way, and grandma being a little drunk, thought that her daughter-in-law took the boy and so she went along with the caravan. They went 15 miles before they chose a place for the new pasture. When they were unloading the camels and horses, the daughter-in-law saw her mother-in-law without the boy and asked her, “Oh, ene where is the boy?” “Oh, my God, I thought you took him with you,” said Kyljyr in panic. He understood that the child had been left at the old pasture, so he took one jigit with him and went back. His son was lying down where he had been left, calmly and without crying. He had cream from milk around his mouth. Kyljyr turned around and he to the side he saw a deer with its doe. It stared back at them and then slowly led its does to the forest.

When they returned to the village they told the story of what had happened and decided to call Orozbak– Bugu- Deer.

That is how from Orozbak came the Bugu clan. From the second son of Doolotbak originated the sarbagysh people. From among the sarbagysh people came one strong in spirit and courageous Ormon khan, who was a very proud person. The two clans of bugu and sarbagysh came from the two blood brothers, but Ormon khan twice a year attacked bugu and had taken our cattle. His relatives rejoiced over the free cattle and asked him why he was attacking the bugu and why they did not attack and take his cattle. “They are an old woman, can’t come out of the house,” he answered. So he called bugu old women. Small youth Balbai heard and saw everything. In his outburst he decided on his own to steal the horses from Ormon khan but he did not succeed and the sarbagysh caught him. After torturing him, they cut one of Balbai’s ears off and sent it to Ormon khan. He ordered to dig a hole and over the hole he placed a yurt and in the yurt Ormon khan placed his mother. He felt a potential threat from the boy and so khan ordered to cut the cartilage from the shoulder bone[6]. After sometime people from bugu clan came to ask for Balbai. Ormon khan agreed and released Balbai. Before he left they washed and dressed him and let him come into khan’s tent. Balbai came in, bowed down but when he was leaving he stepped on the wooden threshold with such force that it made sound; he jumped on his horse and galloped away without looking back.  Ormon khan’s wife noticed it and said, “Balbai left but he kept the offence. You should give him your daughter into marriage and become relatives with him or make friends with him.” To this he replied, “Don’t speak nonsense, when did you see slaves marrying daughters?”

Balbai left and he grew up. He was so zealous and desperate that before going into the battle he would eat one or two heads of poisonous Issyk Kol root. After eating it, from his mouth would come out blue smoke, like from the camel. He had a battle horse named Surkyzyl. Balbai was very muscular, when he lay down his knees could not touch each other because his thighs were heavily built.

Once, when the lake was full, Ormon khan who was faithful to his habit, decided to attack bugu clan with his troops and two baatyrs[7]: son Aji Abykan and Adyl baatyr. The people from bugu clan decided to call warriors to a single fight which would determine the war result. Naiman synchi was given a role of a judge. So he spoke,

“Whom to challenge for a jeke[8]?

Who will witness such a thing?”

Then he challenged,

“Submitted his will to the khan,

Abykan stood out, ready;

Rummaging the ground, madly.”

All the people started talking,

“To challenge for a jeke, the best should come,

The famous one,

The one who does not measure courage and determination,

He who can die defending honor,

Choose the best and challenge.”

People looked around and they chose Erakim from the Mongol clan, he did not like Aji son’s origin. Here is Baltabai’s village. His father called a man named Ystam. Ystam had a horse named Surkyzyl. The warriors started fighting with the javelins and they broke; started fighting with the axes, but the axe heads broke and only handles were left.

“Half day they wrestled,

Pushing each other and trying to overturn,

Embracing each other and pulling on themselves…”

They used all the weapons. Ystam’s horse apparently had a habit to run off in the middle of a battle, because it was too excited. This time it also carried Ystam away, Erakim ran after him with a spear which he threw,

“Chasing him from the left,

Soto was on a yellow horse

He ran and threw the spear and overturned him.”

In that battle Adyl just made it, he jumped into the lake, Abykan also ran away and Ormon khan died.

Who created the sanjira?

There are three types of ears: kuima kulak, akma kulak and tash kulak.

Akma kulak listens but everything it heard, it forgets. Tash kulak does not care for any words. Kuima kulak never forgets whatever it hears. This kind of kuima kulak helped to develop the oral culture: sanjira, dastan and tales, so that we would not forget our ancestors and our origin.

[1] Bugu- a Kyrgyz clan, literally “deer”.
[2] Synchy- a person whose profession is to decipher horses and people. Synchy has a good eye to identify a great horse and a leader or warrior.
[3] Bei- a judge, an educated person.
[4] Tokol- younger wife (at the time of the elder wife)
[5] Teskery bata – unkind wish, a curse, literally (blessing inside out) contrary to “bata” – blessing, kind wish
[6] To cut a cartilage of a shoulder bone – the captured enemy had their cartilage cut, it left them alive but powerless.
[7] Baatyr – a warrior.
[8] Jeke – single combat, duel.